Tips on Using Surform Tools, Files and Rasps

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Each carpenter uses a Surform file or woodworker's file wood and a regular file for work on his tools. But filing woodwork is usually not regarded good practice. The Surform tool or file is employed to expand round holes and also to finish curved work that has been sawed near to the line. To the craftsman, this is permissible only when the work is exceedingly hard to reach using a chisel or a spokeshave.  When working with the Surform tool or file, grasp it at the level of your elbow. The handle must be held in the right hand on the fleshy part of the palm, with the thumb leading on top.  The front end of the tool should be held using the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand, with the thumb on top. These tools are designed to cut in only one direction, so that pressure must be placed only on the forward stroke.
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All files should be worked using the handle, except when a file is employed for jointing a saw. A lot of accidents happen when a file without a handle encounters resistance and the tang pierces the handler's skin. Handles are available in metal and wood and are normally removed when the file is not being used. To put a small handle, insert the file with the handle on the bench, hitting the point until the fit is firm. Be mindful not to strike too hard, or the handle would split. To take out the handle, put the ferrule at the edge of the bench so that the handle is over the bench and the file is free; then tap the file against the bench.

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To create finishing cuts on long, narrow work, clutch the tool at a right angle and move it to and fro. This is known as draw filing.

When filing a curve, use a sweeping movement diagonally across the grain to avoid creating grooves and hollows in the work. This likewise tends to avoid chipping both edges.

The teeth of a Surform tool are fragile and easily broken. Careless wielding of files would dull them. The oil on a new file can be taken away by covering it with chalk or charcoal prior to using.

Files will last a lot longer if they're cleaned with a file vard or brush each time they're used. This doesn't sharpen the file but would restore its usefulness.  A file used on metal will soon go dull because of the gathering of filings. These can be removed by dipping the file in a solution of sulphuric acid for five minutes, then washing it in ammonia. The acid gnaws at the clogging fill and loosens them enough to let them to fall out.
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The wood rasp is a rough-cut file designed for cutting wood, has one flat side and one convex side, either of which closely toothed.  One end is a tang that fits into a wood handle. Surform tools have mostly replaced the rasp modern usage.
The rasp is utilized for cutting and dressing joints where a plane cannot be used, and for dressing handles in handle fitting. Oil should not be used on a rasp because it will cause the rasp to become congested with wood particles.

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Shaping the Screwdriver Using a Grindstone

Among the most valuable things you will know about tools is to use a grindstone on every one of your screwdrivers. Strictly speaking, of course, a screwdriver is not sharpened the least bit— it should be really dull. In fact, you can encounter more grief using a screwdriver that is improperly formed than with any other tool. If your screw driver ends are already rounded in its edges you will witness tools that act like grasshoppers. Such a tool could jump out of a screw, dig into the piece of fine-finished wood you are working with, and may in fact, drive you utterly mad. Having a good screwdriver, correctly shaped, you are able to easily drive home a screw that matches it without much gamble of its slipping out of the slot and ruining your work. Screwdrivers are ground on an emery wheel or grindstone to achieve their right shape. The edge must be made straight across the end and the faces close to the ends parallel or almost parallel to one another. This is needed to prevent the screwdriver from slipping.

By Tip Writer

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DIY Tools: Sharpening Your Woodwork Tools

One of the biggest satisfactions you could experience when you get interested in tools is taking a dull blade and putting a good sharp edge on it—an edge sharp enough to shave a hair off the back of your hand.

The small piece of natural stone which each carpenter of the eighteenth century brought along with him for putting an edge on his tools, as well as the large mill-cut circular stone that was turned around using a handle or a foot treadle, has gone out of style since we have learned to make stones that serve our purposes better. The small bench stone, driven by a hand crank, which some carpenters bring, is typically made of natural emery crushed to varying grades of fineness. Artificial materials done in the electric furnace, like corundum, alundum, and carbide of silicon, are crushed, sifted, molded, and baked to form stones of every size, shape, and degree of fineness necessary.

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For the novice, the common oilstone with a rough surface on one side and a fine surface on the other is all that is needed. If, in the course of time, you feel that the edges and bevels of your tools are worn down badly, it may be essential to have them professionally ground so that you could start all over again, unless you wish to buy or borrow a revolving stone where in you do your own grinding.

The grinding of edged tools is best achieved on a tit sandstone grindstone, since there is then no danger o burning or drawing the temper from the steel. If a dry emery stone is used, the tool should be dipped many times in water to keep it cool.

An improved slow-speed electric grinder having a special wheel and an excellent control mechanism is available. This grinder is highly satisfactory, though it uses a dry wheel.

Article by: TW


DIY Tools: The Screwdriver

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A screwdriver looks like a really simple tool. Perhaps that is why a lot of people have never bothered to master its correct usage. First of all, you should always choose a screwdriver of a length and tip fitted to the screw. Screwdrivers are specified by length of blade. The tip must be straight and virtually parallel-sided. It must also fit the screw slot and be not broader than the screw head. A tip that is too wide would scar the wood around the screw head. When the blade is too thin you might twist and break the tip, or if the tip is overly narrow, the screwdriver will ruin the slot. A driver that is not held in line with the screw would slip out of the slot and spoil both the screw and the work. And when the screwdriver tip is rounded or beveled, it will come up out of the slot, spoiling the screw head.  When the tip is damaged, you can regrind or file it to make it straight.

Always use the longest screwdriver handy for the work. More power can be put on with a long screwdriver than with a short one, normally because the longer screwdriver has a larger diameter handle. Hold the handle securely in the palm of the right hand using the thumb and forefinger grasping the handle near the ferrule. Using the left hand (if you are right-handed) brace the tip and keep it pressing into the slot while renewing the grip on the handle for a new turn.

When no hole is bored for the threaded part of the screw, the wood is often split or the screw is twisted off. If a screw turns too hard, back it out and enlarge the hole. A little soap on the threads of the screw also makes it more comfortable to drive.

There is a regular procedure that is best used to secure two pieces of wood together with screws: (1) find the positions the screw holes. (2) Bore the first hole in the first piece wood slightly bigger than the diameter of the body under the screw head. (3) Bore the second hole slightly smaller than the threaded part of the screw. Bore as deep as half the length of the threaded part. (4) Countersink the first holes to match the diameter of the heads of the screws. (5) Drive the screws tightly in place using the screwdriver.

DIY Tips: Wood Carving Basics

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When it concerns actual carving, there is no machine that would perfectly do it for you. There's no alternative for steadiness of hand and eye and long practice. Perhaps more tools have been made for wood carving than for any other mechanical operation. Each of the tools is, naturally, a sort of chisel, and the underlying requirement of wood carving is to be able to use a chisel skillfully and successfully.  Several chisels are made in 18 sizes, ranging from 1/32 to 1 inch, having straight, long-bend, or short-bend shanks. Veiners are designed as small as 1/64 inch. The other tools are made in six sizes between 1 inch and 2 inches,  Most of the small sizes are either spade or fishtail-shaped, and that enhances their usefulness in modeling. Greater clearance is given just in the back of the cutting edge.

To carve a design in low relief, trace an outline of it on the wood.  Go over the outline using a small gouge or paring tool and cut on the background side of the line. While doing this, keep an eye on the direction of the grain on the raised part. Set down the outline using a chisel or gouge that conforms with the curve of the design, while using a mallet or a soft-faced hammer for tapping.  Cut out the background with a fiat gouge.  Model the surface of the design so as to bear an even degree of finish. Complete the modeling by placing details and veining. Tidy up the edges and the background. Stamp the background when a stamped texture is desired. Try to prevent undercutting the outline, or causing the edges to be too sharp or the background too smooth.

A lot of beautiful yet simple designs on panels, cabinets, book racks, or chests can easily be created by just outlining with a small gouge or veiner. The effect could be enhanced by cutting or stamping down the background, and still further by gradually modeling the raised parts. The gouge lends itself to the forming of beautiful units and borders by merely combining gouge cuts. The skew chisel and the carving knife are especially adapted to the type of notching known as chip carving. Chip carving is effective if not overdone and could be as simple or ornate as the taste of the carver prescribes.

Wood carving is the type of thing that artists and hobbyists spend a lifetime doing; and is definitely among the great arts. There has been a great deal written about the subject, and anyone who wants to go into it deeply must, by all intents, go to the public library and find the necessary books on the subject. One would indeed be richly repaid for taking interest in it.

By Tip Writer


Fuzzy Logic 7.5 kg Washing Machine Instructions - Daewoo DWF75TS

Graphic Manual for Daewoo Fuzzy Logic 7.5 kg Washing Machine

DIY Tips: Veneering Wood

Any average piece of wood can have a beautiful face when a thin sheet of exquisitely grained stock is glued to it. In a simple yet carefully done procedure, an ordinary table of white pine or gumwood can be made to appear like walnut, rosewood, mahogany, zebrawood, cherry, or any of the exotic woods. Plywood sheets are designed with numerous types of veneer coating in raw and completed states.

Veneers can be created or bought. Imitation veneers are also sold in rolls and sheets in a great several patterns.

Although most veneers are used chiefly for decorative purposes, some are also utilized to make a joining stronger. For this purpose, 1/4-inch plywood is popular. Poor craftsmanship in veneering and in pieces underlying veneers nourished a prejudice against this kind of carpentry for several years. Modern glues and care in conditioning of wood now prevent the warping and peeling that caused so a lot of problems years ago.

Ordinarily, veneer is cut from virtually all species of trees that bear an interesting grain, by saving, slicing, or rotary methods. Veneers are usually 1/28 inch thick. Sawed veneer is made in long, narrow strips, typically from flitches picked out for figure and grain. The two sides of the sheet are evenly firm and strong, and either side can be glued or exposed to view having the same results.  Sliced veneer is also cut in the form of long strips by moving a flitch or block on a heavy knife.  The rotary-cut process creates continuous sheets of flat-grained veneer by rotating a log against a knife. The back-cut process, the half-round process, and other alterations of straight rotary-cutting are employed to bring about highly figured veneer from stumps, burls, and other irregular parts of logs. In these procedures, a part of a log, stump, or burl s laid off center in a lathe and is rotary-cut into little sheets of veneer. All rotary-cut veneer bears an open and a closed side, although it could be hard to discern one from the other when the veneer is well cut. When rotary-cut veneer is used for faces, the checked or open side should, if possible, be the glue side. Since veneer is not ordinarily resurfaced prior to its use, it should be cut carefully. If the veneer is nicely cut, there is no appreciable difference in any property except the appearance of wood from veneer created by any of these processes. Veneer chosen to be glued must be (1) uniform in thickness, (2) smooth and flat, (3) free from huge checks, decay, or other quality-reducing features, and (4) straight-grained. For lower classes of plywood, however, some of these requisites may be altered. The veneers are kept in succession as they are cut and numbered so that they can be paired in the finished panel.

To produce a veneered panel or table top, choose the wood carefully from clear, straight-grained, well seasoned wood. If narrow boards are employed (even 2 or 3 inches in width), odds of warping are minimized.
The surface should be squared and planed perfectly smooth and flat in every direction using a jack plane. Be sure that the core stock is of the same thickness at all points. Cut the core to size and shape and sand using No. 1 sand paper.

On this core, an inexpensive straight-grained veneer, known as crossbands, is initially applied. These are glued at right angles to the core strips. These crossbands must first be laid out on the board and connected edge to edge using a veneer tape or other gummed tape.

The veneer is then clamped to the edge between two pieces of waste stock on which a protective paper coating was laid. A 1/2 -inch excess crossband veneer must protrude along every edge.

Disperse glue over the face side of the core; lay on cross-bands and tack gently to the core with 3/4-inch No. 20 brads, If brads project more than 1/4 inch, cut out the heads to this size using pliers. To avoid warping, both sides of the core must be veneered, the second side done in the same way as the first surface and glued at the same time. On each set of crossbands, place a couple of sheets of newspaper, then a flat board, or caul. The entire pack—core in the center, with crossbands, paper, and caul—is then laid into a veneer press for 12 hours.

Care should be taken to keep glue off veneers (it causes curling) or the cauls (it induces blemishes). Waxing the cauls or soaping them allows for easy glue removal. When the crossband has dried, take out caul, brads, and veneer tapes. Trim the edges of the veneer flush with the core using a veneer saw or a plane, knife, or chisel.

Edges of veneered stock are generally veneered in the same fashion. They must be cut a bit wider than needed and cut back after they've been tacked and glued. Bar clamps are utilized to apply pressure to both edges.

The great thing about the finished grain depends on the artistry with which the final veneer is put together, cut, and placed. A typical assembly is the diamond match, where 4 similar pieces are laid in a square in various positions so that the grain appears to make a diamond in the center. Other patterns stress the stripe, a mottled effect, a burl (from a lump on the tree), a crotch (where the branch of the tree grew), and stump wood (from the base). Other effects attained are interwoven or fiddleback, a cross or X pattern, a herringbone, a woven pattern, and a repeat pattern.

By Tip Writer

DIY Tips: Installing Wood Panels

Paneling in wood is a relatively a simple way of producing a distinctive wall treatment that needs minimum care and, as initial construction, saves the total cost of plastering. Factory-finished or semi-finished plywood panels are available in a large sort of veneers and treatments. A well-stocked lumberyard could have 48 styles ranging from cherry to Philippine mahogany, from plain pine to rare hardwoods.

If you prefer applying solid wood, stock is available in regular or random widths, having factory-made tongue and groove, beveled sidings, or shiplap edges. The material you'll need can be judged by measuring the wall area, minus the space for doors and large windows, and then adding 5 per cent. Lumber must be kiln-dried and left in the area where it should be used for several days to match the moisture content in lumber and room. To give maximum surface exposure for this drying or damping, narrow strips must be laid between the boards, making a sticker pile. Stock that hasn't been moisture-conditioned should be sealed on backs and edges to avoid substantial warping.

Random-length boards are generally sold to equal 8-foot lengths and must be kept together. Panels should be arranged having flashiest grain in center, or in some other logical order.
After the stock is set up, the steps in paneling are quite simple.
1. Basement walls or other areas subject to dampness must be covered using tar paper. All walls covered had better be moisture-proof.
2. Over a finished plaster wall, find the studs (they are 16 or 24 inches apart), mark them, and secure furring strips (1-by-2-inch or 1-by-3-inch furring, using 8d nails), leaving 1 to 2 inches of space at the top and bottom in order that the panels overlap.
3. Remove all hardware that are sticking out and electrical receptacles and cut spaces (a bit smaller) in panels to grant proper exposure.
4. Beginning from the left corner, nail boards or panels (using 4d nails), first tacking each board or panel, then completing with nails 6 inches apart. Tongue-and-groove boards are nailed at an angle; rabbeted boards are nailed square in, in as much as the heads are overlaid by the following board. Panels are nailed at grain angles or in serrations.
5. Where the wall area is irregular, shape edges accordingly.
6. Measure, cut, fit, and attach casings and jambs for projections, doors, closets, built-ins, and the like.
7. Round edges and shape arises.
8. Nail strips on the base of the wall to bear the bottom of the baseboard an inch off the floor.
9. Cut and nail the baseboard, working from left to right. Leave 1/4 inch at the bottom over hardwood floors. Mitre the ends at every joining and at corners. For tile floors, a plastic base cove can be utilized.
10. Apply appropriate molding at ceiling, corners, and casings.
11. Countersink all nails and hide them with plastic wood. Remove excess. Finish panels as desired

By Tip Writer


DIY Tips: Polishing Steps and Methods

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Rubbing and polishing are significant steps in finishing. It's here that the final touches are frequently added when a dull or polished finish is needed. When a dull finish is required, the finish coat of varnish, after thorough drying, is rubbed down using very finely powdered pumice sprinkled on a felt pad and doused in water.

When a polished surface is required, the work, after being carefully rubbed down with pumice stone and water, is then polished using very finely powdered rottenstone and crude or sweet oil.

Very soft cotton waste makes for an ideal polishing pad. This pad is dampened with water, then wrung as dry as possible. Rottenstone and polishing oil, that has been thoroughly mixed together into a thin cream, are then put on to the pad and the polishing is commenced. The motion isn't the same as polishing, but it is a straight stroke extending from one end of the surface to the other.

After the polish has been taken to the highest point possible, its brilliance can be intensified by rubbing quickly with the bare hand, using the littlest possible amount of oil polish, just enough to keep the hand from sticking to the finish. This rubbing by hand must be done in a circular motion.

When a greasy appearance remains after polishing, clean the polish off using a soft cloth moistened with alcohol or benzolene. The best care should be exercised in doing this. Have but a really small amount of alcohol on the cloth and go over the surface very lightly, with a circular motion. Never pause or stop. When there is too much alcohol on the cloth, it will burn into the varnish and destroy the polish.

Waxes are created in paste and liquid form and of various mixtures. They are readily applied using a piece of cheesecloth or a brush, and, after leaving to dry, are briskly rubbed until a smooth polish is attained. Waxes are used on floors, linoleum, table tops, and the like. Wax polishing could be done over unfilled wood, or over wood filled with paste filler or a thin coating of shellac. The wax is utilized in the form or a brush, and, after allowing it to dry, are briskly rubbed vigorously using a piece of cheesecloth to get a polish. This must be done numerous times to ensure a good gloss.

A simple oil polish can be used in the same manner as a wax polish on filled or unfilled wood. Oil polish is long-lasting and really simple to prepare. Equal parts of linseed oil and turpentine, when applied sparingly, rubbed vigorously, and done frequently, will afford a beautiful and lasting semi-gloss. This finish is great in its resistance to heat and water marks, and is used usually on dining-room tables.

By Tip Writer


DIY Painting Tips: Enameling

Enameling is more challenging than simple painting, but the results are worth a good deal of effort because a hard, durable coating which nothing else would produce is possible with enamel. Enamel has the added advantage of being washable.

All enamels need undercoats to ensure the proper foundation before the finish coat or coats are applied. These undercoats dry up having a flat finish. The use of an undercoat is necessary since the enamel is partially transparent, for it is made with the best light-colored varnish to assure proper gloss and flow. To enamel a surface:

1. Prepare the surface as you would normally for painting. Clean painted surfaces need little preparation, but stained surfaces must be treated like new surfaces.

2. Apply one or more coats of enamel undercoat (available in white) or flat paint, using a brush commonly used for paint. Leave this to dry for 24 hours. White enamel keeps its color better if grayed by adding of 1 tea-spoonful of black enamel to a gallon. Enamel paint could be slow and sticky, especially in cold weather. Place the can in a pot of hot water and you'll have a smoother solution that applies on more smoothly.

3. Check for blemishes. Resand using No. 00 sandpaper.

4. Apply any needed additional undercoats and let dry. Resand as necessary.

5. Put on a coat of enamel, using flow-on strokes of the brush to prevent brush marks. Enamel paints are "self-leveling" and should not require rebrushing if paint is applied correctly. Allow the enamel to dry for 48 hours unless a special quick-drying paint is employed. Resand the surface using No. 00 sandpaper. 

6. Apply second and third coats adopting the same process. Allow 72 hours for drying. If enamel must be (applied over enamel, a bit of cornstarch added to the second coat will give a better bind.

7. For a dull finish, rub with a paste made of pumice and linseed oil, employing straight strokes with the grain. Remove excess with a wet rag and brush.

8. Keep a small amount of the paint of any mixed color for later touch-ups. A Q-tip or a swab of cotton on a tooth pick makes a convenient touch-up brush that can be disposed after it has been used.

By Tip Writer

DIY Painting Tips: The Basic Steps in Painting

The order in which you paint occasionally puzzles a beginning finisher, particularly with a chair or a bench. Generally, the best policy is to start with the areas that are least seen—bottom parts, legs, and the like. For the last coat it is best to begin high and work down.
On panels, the molding must be brushed first, then top to center and bottom to center. After the primary panel, brush the top and bottom rails and legs. The rails are brushed right to center, then left to center. Don't work an area from corners to the center.
On chair or table legs, paint around with the turnings, holding the brush close to the ferrule.

Some Helpful Hints
Here are tips on painting outdoors after you have put a new rail on the porch stairs, or put a fresh piece of siding on the outside of a house, or maybe even tackle a bigger job.

1. A white blotter will give you a great idea of the color of paint when it is dry.
2. Never paint in very cold or frosty weather.
3. Do not paint wet or moist surfaces, or dirty and greasy surfaces.
4. Shellac any knots in the wood to avoid pitch or sap from coming through the paint.
5. Do not paint over blistered, loose, cracked, or peeling paint. Take out these imperfections.
6. Do not apply second or third coats until former ones are dry.
7. Putty all holes after the first or priming coat.
8. Don't use cheap paint oils—use only pure linseed oils.
9. Do not use old worn-out brushes and expect a great job.
10. Brush the paint in. Don't flow it on.
11. Do not prime using ocher or cheap paint.
12. Several thin coats are better than one thick coat.
13. Any paint can become insect repellant by adding a couple of teaspoonful of citronella, D.D.T., or oil of wintergreen to every gallon.
14. When you keep paint, it is a good idea to show on the outside label the color and how much is still in the can.
15. To get rid of lumps in paint, cut a piece of screening to the size of the paint can. After stirring the paint, insert the circle of screening and let it settle. Any lumps would settle below the screen, maintaining the top portion clear.
16. Paint odor can be minimized by adding a teaspoonful of vanilla to every gallon of paint.
17. For painting a ceiling, a long-handled roller, made by securing to a broom handle, would save much bending and ladder moving.
18. Steps that are in current use must be painted alternate steps at a time. While one set dries, paint the other set. Thus an entrance needed is never be blocked.

When painting walls, naturally, it is commonly needed to size the plaster or surface on which you are going to paint. A plaster wall would have a considerable amount of absorbent capacity for whatever liquid. Apparently if this wall could be coated using an impervious film and the absorption of the paint diminished, the net result might be a saving in expense and an even color on the surface when it dries. When part of an area —hardware or decoration—is to be left unpainted, you could mask the area or cover it with petroleum jelly such as Vaseline. After painting, any droppings can be removed readily.

© 2011 Tip Writer

Tips on Mixing and Applying Paints

When you mix paint, make sure to mix adequate amount for the whole job. When it's dry, check the color under the light in which it would be seen. Keep the color a bit lighter than the effect you want. It is best to use a can only half full with paint. In as much as new cans come filled to the brim, pour one-third of the can—or less, if you'll be using less—into another broad-based can. Coffee cans are great for this function.

Dip the brush in so that only half the length of the bristles are covered. Then take out excess paint by pressing on the inside wall of the can. Professionals place a wire or stick across the paint can for wiping the brush. (Pressing on the brim tends to spill some of the paint over the outside.) A paper plate pasted to the bottom of the paint can would help keep your working area clean.

Here are some steps to get a good painting job:

1. Clear the working area of non-essentials, and collect all the things you'll require.
2. Prepare the surface. Sand down irregularities and flaws. Fill holes using plastic wood. (If plastic wood isn't available, use putty after the priming coat has been placed.) For a good finish, repeat sanding using No. 0 or No. 00 paper. Brush off all dust prior to continuing.
Old wood must be reduced to a surface free from peelings, cracks, and varnishes. Old paint could be taken out by sanding, or with chemicals and sanding, and a thorough washing using laundry soap or kitchen detergent. Be sure the wood is really dry before painting.
3. In painting, first take out loose bristles from your brush by ruffling or brushing on the palm of your hand.
4. Hold the brush handle between thumb and forefinger, like a pencil is held, supporting the broad part of the handle with the fingers. For relief, hold the brush as you will a tennis racket. Brush wood first along the grain, then across grain, and lastly with the grain, at a 90-degree angle.
5. Cover all knots and blemishes with shellac to avoid "bleeding." Bleeding happens when paint oils dissolve turpentine, sap or pitch in the wood.
6. Prime the wood using a coat of thin paint to fill in the pores. The prime coat could be a special base paint of white or a neutral color, or it could be a thinned version of the finish paint you decide to use. Put on the first coat firmly with a brush; do not just "flow" the paint. The brush marks may show after this coat, but would be covered by the second, heavier coat that follows. Let the prime coat dry for at least 24 hours.
7. Paint can be put on over stain when water stain or non-grain-raising stain was used. Otherwise, the surface must first be shellacked (one or two coats) or be covered using aluminum paint.
8. Paint a second coat, using firm strokes with the grain. Check the paint now and then for consistency. Allow 48 hours for drying.
9. If needed, paint a third coat. Allow 72 hours for drying.

By Tip Writer

The Portable Power Saw: A Practical and Powerful Gadget

photo by Chance Agrella

The portable power saw is very much a muscle-and-time saver that it ranks a high place in the home workshop. The portable electric saw is made to substitute electrical power for muscle power. Generally, it saves 50 to 90 per cent in time for most procedures, and a proportionate measure of energy. But most important, by removing some of the drudgery out of your work, it makes home woodworking more interesting and fulfilling. Your own effort is confined to lifting and guiding the saw along the markings.
Cutting where the saw must be taken to the work, or cutting lumber down to a size which your other saws can handle are the primary functions that this saw does better than any other.

The portable saw can be found in shops that already carry table saws. There is a great variety of saws made but the 7-inch is the perfect one for the home workshop.

By using certain blades, you can, cut other materials other than wood—Fiberglas, corrugated sheet metal, slate, and more.

Irrespective of your accuracy with a handsaw, the power saw would provide a more exact cut after you have adjusted your own skills and learned to use the built-in guides and other guides that can be bought or improvised. These will help accomplish true and even cuts.

Saws are sorted by the size of the blade they carry. A blade 6 inches in diameter is regarded a small saw, one 10 inches in diameter a large saw. A 6 1/2- or 7-inch saw will cut 2 1/2 inches vertically. At 45 degrees, it will cut 2 inches. Thus, the cut is enough for cutting a 2-by-4.

Using the Portable Saw

Depth of cut is determined by an adjustable base that supports the saw on the work and is bound in place by a handy tightening device, like a winged nut. A notch in the forward edge of the base enables you to saw a straight line without the use of a guide. Just follow a penciled cut line "free hand," keeping the line in the notch. The base also leans laterally, allowing the means of accurately controlling the bevel angle of your cut. Here once more, a handy tightening device, like a wing nut, holds the base at the cutting angle you choose, and the angle is shown in degrees on a scale. Also on the saw is generally a ripping guide that enables you to make a straight cut a quantified distance' from the edge of a piece of material. The guide can be removed when not in use.

The saw is turned on and off through a trigger type of switch situated in the pistol-grip handle. This placement is an efficient way to grip the saw, work with it, and control it having minimum fatigue. The weight of the saw makes a big difference, naturally, in how rapidly you tire when using it. For this reason, don't select a saw with excessively heavy construction or one that is not well balanced. Such a tool will be too tiring to use. Heft it in the store before you buy it and feel the balance.